What Are the Skills and Experience Required For Becoming a Private Investigator?

What Are the Skills and Experience Required For Becoming a Private Investigator?

So you want to be a private investigator, but you’re not sure if you have the skills and experience required? Don’t worry! In this article I’ll aim to set out the essential requirements for anyone hoping to work in this field.

Ex-police officers are often particularly attracted to working as private investigators. In general they tend to be people who possess an inquiring mind, an interest in legal matters, and a desire to see justice done. And it is certainly true that skills and experience gained in the police service (not to mention the contacts) can come in very handy for a PI.

Having a police background is by no means essential, however. Anyone, potentially, can become a private investigator. You don’t need any special abilities or qualifications (though in some US states and in certain other countries you will have to apply for a licence). A lack of educational qualifications is no barrier to success, and you certainly don’t have to be male. Many private investigators are women, who tend to predominate in the matrimonial and domestic areas of the business.

Certain personal characteristics are desirable, though most will come with time and experience. Assertiveness and persistence are important, along with good eyesight (aided by glasses or contact lenses if necessary) and observation skills. And, if you’re not the kind of person who relishes sitting in a car all night keeping tabs on a ‘suspect’, then you are unlikely to make a good investigator.


This is one of very few opportunities where you don’t have to be young to succeed. In fact, older investigators are often hired in preference to younger, inexperienced, less streetwise individuals. Maturity and common sense are crucial.

Skills — physical and acquired — depend on the kind of work you specialize in. Private eye Irwin Blye has more than thirty years’ experience. In his book ‘Secrets of a Private Eye’ he lists the essential personal characteristics for success as diligence, good observation, being prepared, resourcefulness, creativity, inquisitiveness, patience and neutrality. Fellow author and experienced investigator Edward Smith says the most important traits of all are objectivity, thoroughness, self-reliance and accuracy.

Persistence is a very important attribute. You might spend days tailing a subject, just to find the trail suddenly runs cold. Following this you may go to the public records office to look for written evidence, only to spend several days in a musty vault and find nothing! At this stage a professional investigator takes a deep breath (OK, he might just down a glass of Scotch as well), then decides on his next line of attack. An amateur simply gives up.

Curiosity is another essential attribute without which you’ll get nowhere. It’s a good idea to bear in mind the six prompts used by the investigative journalist: what, why, when, where, how, who. Every answer to every problem can eventually be found using those six words.

Academically, it helps to have a reasonable command of English for producing reports and other written communications.

Some personal characteristics are simply not compatible with this business. For example, prudishness is rarely a good trait for the investigator who may have to observe and photograph people in compromising positions in order to establish infidelity. And being squeamish won’t win you any favors from insurance companies needing you to investigate serious industrial injuries, arson attacks, and people disfigured by road accidents.

One thing you must have is the ability to remain detached. You can’t side with one party to a marital disagreement, for example, if you’re working for the other party.

Finally, it is a fallacy to suppose that you have to be superfit. OK, a reasonable general level of fitness is desirable, but you certainly don’t have to pump iron in the gym every day. Much more important is stamina — the ability to keep going over long periods without flagging. On a surveillance, for example, you may have to remain alert long past normal working hours.

If you have a reasonable mix of these skills and aptitudes, then congratulations — you are potentially well suited to working in this fascinating and challenging occupation.

Mark Gustaffson is the author of the Professional Private Investigator Course from Maple Academy (UK), a leading correspondence course in this field. For more information, see the Maple Academy website at http://www.mapleacademy.com.


Jail Term for Employee Underscores Importance of Hawaii Employers Complying with HIPAA

Jail Term for Employee Underscores Importance of Hawaii Employers Complying with HIPAA

In June 2009, a 22-year-old Honolulu mother of three young children was sentenced to a year in prison for illegally accessing another woman’s medical records and posting on a MySpace page that she had HIV.

The State of Hawaii brought charges against the woman under a state statute criminalizing the unauthorized access to a computer; and which categorized the conduct of the defendant as a class B felony.

According to accounts of the incidents that led to the woman’s conviction, there was a feud between the victim and the victim’s sister-in-law, a friend of the defendant.  The defendant, who worked as a patient service representative at the hospital where the victim was a patient, accessed the computer for the victim’s sister-in-law.

Over the course of approximately ten months, the defendant accessed the patient’s medical records three times through a computer.  After she learned of the victim’s medical condition, the defendant posted on her MySpace page that the victim had HIV.  In a second posting, she said the victim was dying of AIDS.

The victim complained to hospital officials of the unauthorized access. After an internal investigation the hospital terminated the defendant’s employment.

The defendant’s conduct, of course, was egregious and inexcusable.  The one-year jail term handed down by the Court exceeded the term recommended by the prosecutor.  Nevertheless, beyond the issue of holding the defendant accountable for her actions some may question to what extent the hospital should bear responsibility for the breaches of confidentiality that occurred.

Federal law imposes statutory burdens on health care providers to protect against the improper use or disclosure of private health information and to reasonably limit uses and disclosures to the minimum necessary to accomplish their intended purpose.


 Specifically, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996’s (“HIPAA”) privacy regulations became effective on April 14, 2003.  HIPAA is intended to protect consumers’ health information, allow consumers greater access and control to such information, enhance health care, and finally to create a national framework for health privacy protection.  HIPAA covers health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers that conduct certain financial and administrative transactions electronically.

In addition to the privacy regulations, HIPAA’s security rules became effective on April 21, 2005.  Together the privacy and security regulations are the only national set of regulations that governs the use and disclosure of private, confidential and sensitive information.

Under HIPAA’s Security Rule, the standards for the protection of electronic information covered by HIPAA are divided into three groups: Administrative safeguards, Physical safeguards and Technical safeguards.

A couple of the most significant required safeguards under HIPAA are the Administrative “Sanction Policy” and “Security Awareness Training” safeguards.  The sanction policy standard requires a communication to all employees regarding the disciplinary action that will be taken by the covered entity for violations of HIPAA.  The sanction policy should have a notice of civil or criminal penalties for misuses or misappropriation of health information and make employees aware that violations may result in notification to law enforcement officials and regulatory, accreditation, and licensure organizations.

The security awareness training standard requires all employees, agents, and contractors to participate in information security awareness training programs.  Based on job responsibilities, the covered entity should require individuals to attend customized education programs that focus on issues regarding use of health information and responsibilities regarding confidentiality and security.

The HIPAA privacy and security regulations require a privacy officer and security officer to be designated by the covered entity.  The privacy and security officer should continually analyze and manage risk by thoroughly assessing potential risks and vulnerabilities, and implementing related security measures.

The U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) clarified the penalties that may be assessed and against whom for HIPAA violations.  Covered entities and individuals whom “knowingly” obtain or disclose individually identifiable health information in violation of HIPAA may be fined up to ,000, as well as imprisonment up to one year.

Offenses committed under false pretenses allow penalties to be increased–a 0,000 fine, with up to five years in prison. Finally, offenses committed with the intent to sell, transfer, or use individually identifiable health information for commercial advantage, personal gain or malicious harm permit fines of 0,000, and imprisonment for up to ten years.

Given the security breach that led to the tragic events, including the one-year jail term for the defendant, Hawaii employers, health care providers and health plans should review their privacy and HIPAA policies and conduct an audit of their practices in order to protect against the improper use and disclosure of private health information and to reduce the risk of privacy breaches in their own organization.

Roman Amaguin, Esq. Visit http://www.amaguinlaw.com; http://www.virtualhawaiiemploymentlawyer.com.


Find Your Ex-Girlfriend and Get a Second Chance at Love

Find Your Ex-Girlfriend and Get a Second Chance at Love

Everyone has gone through a breakup at some point and time in life. Some relationships were fly-by-night and others may have been a little long term. You remember one breakup like it happened just yesterday, and you never got the chance to talk to her after that…you wanted to so badly, though. You shared some great times with your ex-girlfriend, she was your first love, your only love, and she still holds your heart today. If only you could talk to her just once more, maybe see her face again…

Okay, let’s jump back into reality here. You haven’t seen your ex-girlfriend since the breakup. She left and you never saw her again. You went to her place, and it was empty, and her phone number had been disconnected. You don’t know any of her relatives, or rather you don’t know how to get in touch with them, so it seems like every road leads you to a dead end. There’s no way you’ll ever find her, you’ll never get a second chance. You keep going over the possibilities in your head, but you just don’t know how you could ever find her.


There is hope, and it’s much simpler than you probably think. You simply need to hire a private investigator to do a people finder search for you. You’ve already got your ex-girlfriend’s basic info- her name, age, old address and phone number. The PI will do all the rest for you. In fact, they might be able to find her in the next 24 hours! Wouldn’t that be awesome?

Just to be clear, a people finder search doesn’t always return the perfect result. Sometimes, you can have every detail about a person and still be unable to find them. When something like this occurs, the private investigator will just dig a little deeper. With the information contained in the original search report, the PI will then proceed to perform what is called a skip trace. This method of investigation is more advanced and on average, it will take about two weeks for the PI to find your ex-girlfriend. But, she WILL be found, and this is the one thing that matters most to you!

You won’t need to do anything extra while the investigation is underway, you just have to be patient and wait for the PI to do their job. Trust that the time spent will be well worth it, and just keep in mind that you will finally get your second chance with your ex-girlfriend. You will be able to make things ‘right’ between the two of you and be happy again.

If you decide to hire a PI to perform this investigation, be sure they are an expert locater and have experience with people finder searches and skip trace investigations. Do your homework and research their name and PI agency to see if they are considered to be experts in this very cutting edge type of investigation.

Ed Opperman , president of Opperman Investigations Inc is an expert in Skip Tracing and People Finder Search investigations. If you need help finding someone visit http://www.emailrevealer.com


Internet Harassment – Fight Back With A Reverse Email Search

Internet Harassment – Fight Back With A Reverse Email Search

Do you ever wonder why the large Internet service providers, social networking sites and message board forums don’t do anything to stop cyber harassment and online stalking? It’s because the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (“CDA”) Section 230(c)(1) shields providers of interactive computer services from liability for the actions of the individuals using those services.

Since they have no liability for the actions of their members they make very little effort to identify them or even discourage the cyber harassment of other members.

Some Cyber Harassment Statistics (2002):

- 62% of Cyber Harassment Victims are Female, primarily ages 18-24.

- Groups most at risk for Cyber Harassment include:
- Women, particularly abused women
- Special Ability Groups
- Minors
- Members of Minority Groups
- New Internet Users

- 62% of all Cyber Stalking Victims are located in the United States

- Cyber Harassers are primarily male, but the number of female cyber harassment offenders is growing steadily.


- 25% of Offenders are personally known by their victims.

”The most surprising thing we’ve seen is the rise in female cyberstalkers – this increased from 27% in 2000 to 32.5% in 2001 to 35% in 2002,” says Jayne A. Hitchcock, president of WHOA. “We’ve also had more men come to us for help, jumping from 17% in both 2000 and 2001 to 35% in 2002.” http://WHOA.org

The reason so many people will use the Internet to stalk or harass people is because they think they can remain anonymous and their victim will not be able to identify them. Obviously most people would not behave that way if they knew they could be caught. One they are identified most return back under the rock they crawled out from under.

If you or someone you know are the target of a cyber stalker or online harassment you don’t need to take it lying down. Even though you will get little help from the ISP or social network you can hire a private investigator to perform a reverse email search to locate and identify the stalker. Document their investigation into a report and use that report in court to get justice against your stalker.

If you are ready to fight back and stop being a victim you can begin by searching online for a PI that specialized in Internet investigations and cyber stalking intervention. Be sure the one you choose is considered an expert in email tracing and locating and identifying people online.

They should also offer other types of services like skip tracing and background reports. That way if the investigation expands into other areas you can save time and money by staying with one group of professional investigators until the end of the case . If you decide to take this route you want to be sure it’s done right the first time.

Also check out pricing and estimated length of time for the results of the investigation. Too cheap or too quick is a good sign of a possible scam to take your money and run .

Ed Opperman , president of Opperman Investigations Inc is an expert in Cyber Stalking Investigations. If you need help with a Reverse Email Search visit www.emailrevealer.com


How To Get a Caller’s Name and Address From a Cell Phone Number

How To Get a Caller’s Name and Address From a Cell Phone Number

Tracking down friends, family members, and people who owe you money can get a little dicey when the only thing you have to work with is a cell phone number.  This is the way it appears to those who don’t actually know where to the answers.  The reality is that is very easy to get a cell phone owner’s name and address.

If you’d like to know about a sure-fire way to track down that deadbeat friend of yours who borrowed ,000 and skipped town when it came time to repay the debt, the following will tell you how to do it.

Let’s just say its been 3 months since you have a heard a word from your friend.  It’s obvious he has no intention of repaying because he left town with no forwarding address and even turned off the old mobile number you still have for him.

And you may think he is long gone.

Think again.

You can take that old number and run a search of it with a reverse mobile phone directory.  The report you get in response to this search will tell you his current address, among other things.  And that is all you need to hunt him down.  But if that is not enough, the report will also tell you about other phone numbers he may currently own – so you can start hounding him down on those numbers.  

The report will also give you family member names along where they live, so you can notify them that you are looking for their deadbeat relative.  


Even more, you may even be able to find out the name of his current employer.  So if sending letters to him and calling his other phone numbers are not enough, you can get on the horn and start calling him at work… and maybe even speak with his boss about his deadbeat ways.  

Believe me, all of this will get his attention.  

Beyond this scenario, though, there are many people that are simply looking to get a cell phone owner’s name.  Maybe they have found a number scrawled on a piece of paper, or maybe they want to learn the identity of an unknown number that just appeared on the “missed calls” list of their mobile phone.

If you are looking for the simplest and easiest way to get a caller’s name from a cell phone number, there really is only sure-way to tackle the problem.  And the answer is not Google or a free phone directory.  The answer is what is known as a reverse mobile phone directory.  

This directory is terrific when it comes to finding out the names of guys your wife or girlfriend has been two-timing you with.  This may come as a bit of a surprise, but she may be a little reluctant to admit to such behavior, let alone tell you the name of the guy or guys she has been humiliating you with.  

If you would like to find out who these guys are, what you can do is simply trace all the calls made and received on her mobile phone.  It shouldn’t be too difficult to gain access to her phone, so just handle it.

Go to the website of a reverse mobile phone directory and get busy searching numbers.  Mostly likely, most of the numbers you will be searching will be mobile numbers, although some may be business or landline numbers.  So, here’s the best plan for searching every type of number:  sign up for a subscription with a directory.

A subscription allows you to search any type of telephone number your wife or girlfriend may have had contact with.  But understand that each mobile phone search is still going to cost you – even with a subscription.  The private nature of these numbers means the only way these directories are able to make these reports open to public viewing are through buying the most current information from all of the wireless carriers.

A report on one of these fellas will tell you his name, where he presently lives, whether he is married or single, other family member names, other phone numbers he uses, what he does for a living, how old he is, and other details.  In short, more than enough information to find out for sure what actually is the situation between each of these guys and your wife or girlfriend.

For a fast, easy, and accurate way to do a Wireless Phone Number Lookup, all you have to do is visit this site to Identify Unknown Cell Phone Numbers.


How to save time booking a holiday rental in Skiathos

How to save time booking a holiday rental in Skiathos

Being one of the Sporades Islands, holiday rental accommodation in Skiathos will place you a few miles off the coast of mainland Greece and somewhere in the middle of the crystal blue waters of the Aegean Sea and in a destination that boasts some of the finest beaches to be found on any Greek Island. Holiday farmhouses and villas provide all the enhanced space and private leisure facilities you need for a big family vacation in some idyllic situations of peaceful seclusion, although holiday accommodation in Skiathos of any description exists in a choice of livelier coastal resorts if you’d prefer to experience the exciting atmosphere of a more cosmopolitan urban environment, like the island’s principal town, Skiathos. Apartment rentals are widely available and are another popular option of holiday accommodation, able to cater for almost any number of people, so it won’t matter what your requirements may be, you can find the perfect location and the ideal apartment or villa rental in Skiathos to provide you with a base from where you and your loved one – or your entire family! – can discover the vacation rental of a lifetime.

Skiathos is also one of the most popular islands in the Sporades chain of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. With over 60 beaches and a host of wonderful tavernas and quiet shops, it is the perfect place for a family vacation, and with a huge selection of self catered accommodation to rent, both apartments and whole villas, it can be a surprisingly low cost place to take the kids and enjoy the ambience of the Sporades islands, with its pine wooded mountains and stone roofed villages.

The main attraction of Skiathos is its selection of 60 beaches, from the most well known Koukounaries to the naturist beach right next to it – the unfortunately named Banana beach. Once you’ve spent a few days working on your tan, the beaches are also popular with swimmers, and the older members of the family can also spend a few evenings investigating the nightlife and going clubbing. There are also a lot of jewellery shops. And away from the beaches and tourist centre, you can also go hiking across the green terrain and appreciate some of the culture of Skiathos by exploring Kastro, the abandoned medieval centre of the island. Also, it is possible to take trips to the other islands in the Sporades including the attractive but much quieter Skopelos and Alonnisos.

There are a huge selection of apartments and villa rentals in Skiathos City and all over the island, so it is well worth shopping around for deals. It is certainly possible to rent a villa large enough to accommodate a family of four or more for less than £500 a week, which is a great money saving option compared to the cost of booking hotel rooms. And as the villas come fully equipped with all modern comforts, plus luxury features such as private pools and wireless internet, it will certainly not feel like a low cost holiday. The extra privacy and space also mean that villa rentals are great for kids – the youngest members of your family can run around and let off steam without you needing to worry about disturbing your neighbours!

Lupain Holiday Rentals for the best Holiday Rentals in Skiathos. Browse our website to see the full range of self catering accommodation in Skiathos.

I write articles for Lupain Holiday Rentals.

You can choose from a great variety of slef catering holiday rentals by browsing our website.


How Can I Get Anybody’s Criminal Past Free Of Charge On The Net

How Can I Get Anybody’s Criminal Past Free Of Charge On The Net

Whether you have at any time planned to perform a criminal information check on someone, you’re obviously not unique! Each day thousands of men and women head on the net to perform a background lookup on somebody. In this article we show anyone the simple way to run a lookup.

Men and women will check a persons past and personal history in many situations. Whether a person have a special reason or not for checking out a person, it’s awesome to know that running a arrest criminal record search is easy to do.

Before you will needed to hire person who specialized in private investigations agencies to retrieve this sort of data. Now, you’ll just have to go on the net to see out all kinds of data about somebody’s history. There’s no will want to hire an investigative agency because somebody can now acquire information you wish directly on your Desktop.


The reason you will don’t have to hire anybody now is that there are background checks sites that can be utilized to find out about info on anybody. Majority of these internet listings permit the public to find a person’s marriage history, criminal history, personal info and lots more just by running a investigation. It’s really impressive to check out the amount of info that one could learn about somebody.

The amount of money you’ll be asked to pay for performing a investigation is quite small. When you’ll consider the amount of work it takes to build the sites and keep the databases up to date the charges are incredibly cheap.

It is a very good strategy to view a website that bills the individual a one time just fee for limitless background checks. This winds up working similar to a membership – you login and use a criminal record search whenever you want. It’s a smarter choice since it saves you a good amount of cash.

Here’s a a basic technique you may try to check out personal data about somebody by using a searches engine. Type it in between quotations and also encompass the city of this person if you know it (eg. “John Smith” Indiana). Run the search and glance at the results that turn up and if there is anything noteworthy Each and every So often you will expose an item valuable.

If this does not furnish you the specifics you need just get a paid background check. With a paid background investigation you’ll find full details and you’ll obtain info directly on your pc screen. It’s an unbelievably important tool to have up your sleeve!


Analyzing the Practicality of the Lifelong Learning Policy in Pakistan

Analyzing the Practicality of the Lifelong Learning Policy in Pakistan

1- Introduction:

With recession looming and unemployment rising, politicians and economists are trying to find ways of stimulating economic growth.  For any country to sustain through these times and to elevate the falling economic frames, it is essential to equip people to deal with it as economic growth is increasingly driven by knowledge, and no country can remain competitive without enabling its people to apply knowledge in all spheres of life (Robbins; 1996). Economic stability needs a new model of education and training, a model of continuous learning; from early childhood through retirement, irrespective of the heterogeneous age, gender and socio-economic backgrounds of a nation (Holford & Griffin; 1998). To keep abreast with the modern world, emphasize on the ability to continuously acquire knowledge, skills and competencies has increased immensely in the developing countries especially after the promotion of Lifelong Learning in Europe, countries beyond Europe are striving hard to promote the trend.  Developing countries and countries with transition economies are at a risk of being further marginalized in a competitive global knowledge economy because their education and training systems are not equipping learners with the skills they need today; neither are they preparing for the future.  Human resource development contributes to boost the economy; it reduces skill mismatches in the labor market, and ensures a country’s sustainable development (Bhola; 2006).

Sustainable development is integral to sustainable human development, which focuses on the development of the society; beyond the economic aspects only. It focuses on developing people’s capacities throughout their life span; in a way to encourage lifelong learning amongst masses. The advantage of encouraging lifelong learning skills amongst the people of developing and developed countries too is not only to increase production, productivity or economic well-being but rather to elevate the social cultural standards of any nation, enabling people to live a better life, to be aware of their potentials and expand the range of their abilities to do more, to live a better, healthier and more secure life, to be safe from diseases, crime and violence, to apply knowledge for better causes; and enjoy a healthy,  affirmative and creative life, in harmony with the changing trends of the world (Perraton; 2000).

In the 21st century; nations need to be lifelong learners, bearing the capacity to adapt continuously to the changing opportunities and the demands of the world. The current education systems followed by developing countries will have to evolve in the new direction of continuous learning. Practically every country has identified providing quality education to all as one of its top national priorities. For this purpose, many countries have already revamped their educational policies and have opted modern ways of teaching and learning. A few developing countries like Philippines, Bulgaria, Ukraine, India, now regard Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integrated teaching and learning as a core ingredient of education practices. The initiation of ICT and the Internet has greatly influenced the way knowledge is delivered now. This has resulted in the development of e-learning, which is considered as a tool for the promotion of lifelong learning skills (DeZure: 2000).

In the developed countries it is the norm for every household to have a computer and practically unlimited and uninterrupted access to the Internet. However, it is certainly a different scenario in the developing countries of the world. With feeble infrastructure, connectivity issues, many countries are finding it difficult to compete in this new e-learning era. Although, in the recent years there had been a substantial enthusiasm and argument regarding the role of ICT in overcoming educational crisis in Pakistan, due to feeble policy, weak governance and limited resources it still faces tremendous challenges towards this notion (OECD; 2006).

This article aims to evaluate the significant reasons for the downfall of lifelong learning through technology integration in Pakistan.


2- E-learning and Lifelong Learning in Pakistan:

Like other developing countries, the policy makers of Pakistan also recognize lifelong learning as a powerful tool for socio-economic development. In 2006 the Ministry of Education (Here after MoE) of Pakistan launched a National ICT Strategy for the Education of Pakistan (Here after NICTSEP) as an off-shoot of the National Education Policy (Here after NEP) 1998 – 2020. Its fundamental objective was to make education accessible for all; irrespective of the age, place and time constraints by adopting ICT integrated learning approach. Although e-learning had already made its way into Pakistan since the initial years of the new millennium, it is seen as a tool for making education accessible for all, especially the marginalized groups in urban areas, e-leaning is a cheaper and more flexible alternative of regular educational opportunities (Dhanarajan, 2001; Bhola, 2006;). However, in Pakistan this approach is constrained to the private education sector only. Except for a few public schools in Sindh which are adopted by Intel for its global program ‘Intel World Ahead’ and have Intel-equipped classrooms with extensive gadgets, the rest of the public schools have so far no substantial access to modern ICT tools.


NICTSEP is the first official lifelong learning policy for Pakistani nation presented by the Government of Pakistan.


2.1 National ICT Strategy for the Education in Pakistan – A Brief Overview

Education is a categorical imperative for individual, socio-economic, and national development. This is the vision that guides the programmes of the Ministry of Education (MoE).  We believe that education must enable all individuals to reach their maximum human potential.

In today’s technology-intensive society, we cannot reach this objective without utilizing information and Communications Technology (ICT)

Lt. Gen (R) Javed Ashraf

Federal Minister of Education

Government of Pakistan


The fundamental purpose of NICTSEP was to use technology to provide modern, scalable, cost-effective, and rapid support to Pakistan’s broadening educational needs. The policy was based on the theory that there should be a continuous education for the people of Pakistan irrespective of their age and socio-economic background. The ideology behind drafting the policy was the research proven fact that technology and the skills to use ICT to enhance learning are key to preparing citizens to compete in the 21st century global marketplace (Robbins; 1996).

The objectives of the policy are very fascinating, however the strategy posed to meet these objectives is not sound. When we talk about e-learning and lifelong learning in a country like Pakistan, the feeble infrastructure, rapid demographic changes due to immigration of non-skilled people in the country, changes brought by acute natural catastrophes and weak financial constitution have to be taken in account. Introducing ICT is far more complex than simply distributing hardware among people. There has to be a plan to make e-learning possible and successful beyond the urban areas; into the rural areas where people have not ever seen or used a mobile technology. The national technology literacy rate as per the the statistics presented by Intel- Pakistan and UNICEF- Pakistan in 2007 is 11/100 people in urban areas and 3/100 people in rural areas.

Pakistan’s rural areas with population exceeding 72% of the total population of the country (PCO, 2006), the adult literacy rate of whom is less than 27% (Economic Survey, 2006); even out of this 27% people are unable to participate towards economic stability of the country because of lack of skill development amongst them. There are 163,330 registered schools in the rural areas of Pakistan (MoE) however, many of these schools are not even in operative condition due to low maintenance no teaching staff. In such a situation government policies, should not be a political ploy; with strong foundations they should be laid practically and should have a strategic action plan for successful implementation.


1- Practicality of NICTSEP:

For various reasons, using ICT in an education system of a developing country requires a cautious approach as irrespective of the benefits of e-learning and lifelong learning in the developed countries, there are many challenges and hurdles that need to be overcome in order to enhance the effectiveness of both in a developing country because of different ability groups among people with varying levels of access to infrastructure and diverse personal interests.


NICTSEP offers a uniform strategy to cater all the differences among masses. The six elements of the policy and the challenges to their success are discussed below.


Element 1: Use ICT to extend the reach of educational opportunity

The actions recommended by the document are to first determine the needs of the students, educators, and/or citizens, this leads to the selection of ideal equipment/ ICTs and finally an awareness campaign will be initiated to consciously involve a large number of people in this project.

In making education accessible to all, issues of planning need to be well considered, as the fundamental action defined by NICTSEP is also to draft the content as per the needs of the citizens/ students. According to Gboku and Lekoko (2007) on planning programs in adult education it is essential to be sure of what will interest them. However, in case of NICTSEP, to cater to a nation with heterogeneous skill level the bifurcation of beneficiaries on the basis of content is a humongous task and NICTSEP does not explain a practical framework to do so.

One of the major causes for the failure of this policy is the frail approach towards composing the learning content for various ability groups. The fundamental


Element 2: Apply ICT to strengthen the quality of teaching and educational management

NICTSEP focuses on lifelong learning opportunities for the teachers/ educators too as a stable learning environment will not evolve unless the teachers in service understand and go through lifelong learning ideas and practices (Longworth & Davies 1997:86). However, again for the success of this element, there are no concrete action recommendations given by the document. Continuous professional development is vital to promote lifelong learning opportunities for the educators yet; the challenge for the success of this element is the launching, scrutinization and governance of the strategy across the country.

Pakistan, with 220,885 schools out of which 131,113 are public schools, requires an extensive teacher training as according to a report presented by UNESCO 34 % of the teachers serving in the public schools are untrained and 12 % of the public school teachers are not graduates need tangible framework to work around this element.


Element 3: Employ ICT to enhance student learning

NICTSEP suggests that ICT shall be integrated into schools to support students’ self-paced learning as the technology integrated learning offers students the chances to explore, investigate, reflect, learn social skills (such as collaboration, logical reasoning, and creative expression), and enhance self-esteem (Bhola; 2006). The actions recommended to attain the objective are to reform curriculum guidelines, seek and develop content resources, modify national examination systems and to make learner-centered instruction the focus of learning (Appendix 1: Pg. 7)

The actions recommended for this objective are the sub-objectives; which in their own capacity are a few humongous targets to achieve for a country like Pakistan. There is a vital contrast between the NICTSEP and the National Education Policy (Hereafter NEP). Both the documents do not complement each other. Modifying national examination system, as recommended by the NICTSEP demands a complete modification of NEP.


Element 4: Develop complementary approaches to using ICT in education

NICTSEP suggests to support students and teachers in developing key ICT competencies (like problem-solving and critical thinking skills) by treating ICT as a school subject for this purpose the action recommended by the document is to establish competency based curricula which is raises the opportunities towards self awareness and to develop life skills (Longwoth; 2003)

Most of the private schools of Pakistan follow a customized curriculum. The current curriculum followed by the public schools of Pakistan as planned by the ministry of education, is revised every five years; however there’s hardly a noticeable change. A competency based curriculum is more than only formulating a curriculum, NICTSEP doesn’t suggest who will revise the national curriculum, and how much will it be modified.


Element 5: Build on the current experiences of existing and successful ICT programmes

NICTSEP emphasizes on a continuous evaluation of the strategy by collecting data through feedback. The actions recommended by the documents are to establish an official clearinghouse system to gather and distribute information on effective ICT programmes and to ensure that information from the clearinghouse system reaches stakeholders.


Element 6: Develop capacity at the federal and provincial department of education levels

NICTSEP suggests that for successful implementation of the recommended policies and to flourish Lifelong learning in Pakistan, within the Ministry of Education (MoE), a Technical Implementation Unit should be formed to look after the cause of ICT in Education and advise the Moe. The document also suggests that the Technical Implementation Unit should carry out key functions to advance the mission of MoE.

4. Reasons for the Failure of NICTSEP & Lifelong Learning in Pakistan

Pakistan’s lifelong learning policy is written with emotive mottos and great aims however, it lacks accountability and practicality. It is evident that there is a lack of attention and priorities from government authorities to address the educational needs of the country from preschool children, to adult learners. Despite of NICTSEP, Pakistan still faces the challenge making its sizeable population literate, NICTSEP hardly brought about a positive change in the literacy trends of the country.  It is merely a fancy policy with a major disconnect with the NEP 1998 – 2010. The key factors for the collapse of the strategy are discussed below.

4.1 Weak Planning:

NICTSEP lacks sound planning. The document does not identify the stakeholders responsible to make lifelong learning through technology integration possible in Pakistan. Therefore, no one can be held accountable but the Ministry of Education. The team members to implement an extensive project are not identified neither is any other department nominated to do so.

NICTSEP does not clarify where, when and how the adult learners will be trained. The document does not explain the process of registration, the role of teacher mentors and the administration in adult learning.

The document does not pay sufficient focus on questions like how will a population of exceeding 166,000, 000 will be divided into ability groups, how many ability groups will they be divided into?

There are no guidelines for developing the learning content. NICTSEP only gives an overview of the targets that the country may achieve through e-learning approach; it lacks all the fundamental underpinnings of a planned educational policy.

4.2 Feeble Resource Management:

Given the magnitude of the task involved, NICTSEP does not pay adequate attention to the resource management. Resources, in terms of hardware and human resources, are scarce in a Pakistan. The available resources; in terms of finances, hardware, accessibility and human resource are not taken in account. NICTSEP focuses on online collaborative learning for masses, however, there had been no budget sanctioned for the allocation of hardware in the public schools and no financial supplement is proposed by the NICTSEP or NEP 1998 – 2010.

NICTSEP disregards the vital issues like training of the involved tutors and provision of standardized number of suggested ICT tools for each school

For a country like Pakistan, where 615,000 families were displaced after the earthquake in 2008 and more than a million displaced after the devastating floods in 2010, people do not have access to the basic facilities of life and accessing an online lifelong learning program without any scheme is not a fascinating idea.

4.3 Lack of Strategic Timeline:

NICTSEP gives no timeline to any target. Planning of an online training content, allocation of essential resources, pre-project training of the involved teachers, registration and establishment of the lifelong learning units in the country; have been given no time frame marginalizing the significance and accountability of the strategy.

4.4 Contrasting Policies:

The fundamental objective of the NEP 1998 – 2010 is to enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. NEP 1998 – 2010 suggests that computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner and secondary school curricula shall be revised in a way that it includes recent developments in information technology for learning purposes (MoE; 1998)

NICTSEP, is a sharp contrast to the targets of NEP 1998 – 2010 which maintains no focus and no budget allocation for adult learning opportunities.

4.5 Accessibility & Connectivity Issues

Pakistan is facing acute power shortage crises. On account of which the citizens had faced more than 18 hours of electricity failure in the initial months of year 2010. The ratio of the availability of a domestic computer in Pakistan is 2:35. In a country where 24% of the population is below poverty line, access to the Internet is not easy. Therefore, either the Government of Pakistan takes the responsibility of establishing learning centers fully equipped with the essential resources required for an easy access to the online learning programs.


5- Recommendations:

Education is an ongoing process to survive through continuous change. It is the most direct means of intervening positively in the human element in development, providing the individuals with the means of personal development, and the nation with the opportunity of integrating individuals into society…reviewing, revising and redesigning current practices to present better is the key to live through the impulsive future.

General Matsuura
UNESCO Director

Successful lifelong learning through employing NICTSEP requires a change in the syllabi, teaching approach, teaching content; precisely, a complete paradigm shift is necessary to bring about this change.

A few recommendations in this regard are discussed below.

5.1 Characterizing Users:

NICTSEP is a standardized policy for the whole nation therefore before developing the content; it is of pivotal importance to characterize the users. Since NICTSEP emphasizes on an e-learning approach, skill-based or access-based differentiation of the users can help develop a promising content.

5.2 Defining Clear Objectives:

NICTSEP is a humongous project; being a standardized policy for the whole country its successful implementation requires distributive leadership; a team of representatives working in collaboration with each other and responsible for their own domains. Therefore defining clear learning objectives is very important.

5.3 Continuous Content Planning:

For successful lifelong learning the content should be planned, evaluated and re-planned continuously.Planning an online lifelong learning content is a continuous cycle which is explained well by the Product Development Cycle, adapted from the Australian Flexible Learning Framework (Australian National Training Authority; 2001)

5.4 Resource Management:

For the success of an extensive project like NICTSEP, a policy to manage resources in terms of finances, inventory, human skills, production and information technology is essential. For effective resource management it is essential that NEP and NICTSEP depict collaborative trends.


NICTSEP should propose suitable venues for continuous adult learning and also explain the system of resource deployment to avoid any future ambiguities.


For a proposal like NICTSEP; meticulous and incessant, assistance from national and international NGOs can also be taken. Volunteer parties can be taken on board to enhance the human resource and the financial support.

5.5 Continuous Evaluation:

The establishment of a council to supervise the effectiveness of NICTSEP will spur the success of the proposed recommendations. A regular and continuous evaluation of the national strategy will enable the stakeholders to timely bring the desired. Instead of long term evaluation, evaluation of benchmarks can determine the success of the policy.


5- Conclusion;

Whilst valuing and recognizing the proven advantages associated with lifelong learning, as a nation with large population, destruction caused by frequent natural disasters, weak economy and prevailing law and order situation in the country Pakistan is faced with the great challenges on giving lifelong learning opportunities to the people across the country.


As a realistic solution, the policy must focus and address indigenous issues in the form of localization rather than promoting globalization. The lifelong learning policy should be redesigned with a democratic and participatory approach in collaboration with the NEP by the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Information & Communication Technology. It is essential that the policy focuses on manageable target audience and can be further elaborated for an extensive number of users. Lifelong learning through ICT in Pakistan requires time, extensive human resource and training to be introduced successfully on a massive scale. Initially, such an effort should aim to strengthen the links between the educational framework and the labor market prevailing in the country to prevent the rapidly increasing ratio of unemployment in the country.





Australian National Training Authority, Education Network Australia. Vocational Education and Training Advisory Group (2001) Australian flexible learning framework: Strategy 2001. Austrailia

Bhola, H.S. (2006) Adult and Lifelong Education for Poverty Reduction: A critical analysis of contexts and conditions. International Review of Education Vol 52 Nos 3-4 UNESCO / IFE, Hamburg

Dhanarajan, G. (2001) Distance Education; Promise, Performance & Potential. Open Learning 16, 61 – 68

Longworth, N. & Davies, W. (1997) Lifelong Learning. Kogan Page. London

Longworth, N. (2003) Lifelong Learning in Action. Kogan Page. London

M. L. S. Gboku, Rebecca N. L. (2007) Developing Programmes for Adult Learners in Africa. UNESCO. Paris

Ministry of Education (1998) National Education Policy for Pakistan. Ministry of Education. Islamabad

Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (2006) ICT & Learning: Supporting Out –of-School Youth and Adults. OECD

Perraton, H. (2000) Open and Distance Learning in the Developing World. Routledge. London

Robbins, D.J. (1996) Evidence on Trade and Wages in the Developing World. OECD Development Centre. Paris







Get Access to Cell Records Without Hiring Investigator

Get Access to Cell Records Without Hiring Investigator

If we have to look for someone’s information, If you have lost all contacts with an old friend and the only ties you have is an old cell phone number or want to know some annoying number from whom you receive calls what do you do? For these reason you can hire some private investigator.

Once the private investigators were the only way to find out someone, at that time no one could access to others database or they didn’t know anything about reverse phone lookup. But things have changed a lot now, we can easily look upon someone’s database or can access to other database by reverse phone lookup system. So the investigators have become more obsolete.

There are many advantages to access someone’s information by self-searching, as we won’t have to pay their hiring changes. The private investigators charges their remuneration by three ways, firstly we have to pay them for their knowledge for from where they find the information, secondly we have to pay for the accessing the information, and thirdly you have to pay for their time which they spend for you case. So it will be a huge amount of wage. And finally we will spend hundreds or thousand on them, where we can do this job from home nowadays with the help of computer and spending less amount of money.


The information, which the private investors used to get privately, is no longer private. We can access to peoples database through Internet by installing a program called Reverse Phone Detective. It means we can play the role of the private investigators just by having someone’s cell phone number.

This system is easy to install, you will just have to pay once to register and then you can access to anyone’s database. Now you don’t have to pay wholesome money to the private investigators and you can easily do reverse landline or cell phone search.

The reverse phone lookup system will let us know about the persons name, address, and family members. So as an effect we don’t have to hire a private investigator and you can save money and can get proper information also.

Maxx Borshoff is a writer on Techonolgy updates plus reverse phone services reviews . You can get more entertainment updates and tech news from his weblog – maxupdates.tv.


Rancho Cucamonga Auto Accident Attorney?s Top Ten Unusual Nightmares After a Car Accident

Rancho Cucamonga Auto Accident Attorney?s Top Ten Unusual Nightmares After a Car Accident

1. The car you are in keeps getting hit by one car after another.


2. The police handcuff you after the accident.


3. The police talk to you, but only in French.


4. The other car disappears and noone believes an accident happened.


5. Your chihuahua is driving.


6. The paramedics ignore you.


7. You’re still sitting in the hospital emergency room waiting to be seen three days later.


8. Your doctor is your drunk neighbor.


9. Your physical therapist wants to do surgery.


10. Your lawyer is your mother and she’s blaming you for the accident.

Here are ten actual tips of advice from an auto accident lawyer to follow if you have been in an accident. You can also learn more about how to handle a personal injury in Rancho Cucamonga, or any city, by calling the Law Offices of R. Sebastian Gibson at any of the numbers which can be found on our website at http://www.SebastianGibsonLaw.com  and learning how we can assist you.


Obviously, if you have had an accident, and you are reading all of this advice, it may have been a few hours since the accident. However, if you ever have another accident, or if it’s only been a few hours since you were hurt, here’s what you should do from the start.


First, take a look around and determine if you or anyone, are hurt. If so, taking steps like trying to prevent further injury or loss of blood are the most important thing you can do. Even if some other driver caused you to be injured, it’s just good manners to help the other driver if they are hurt. They may even be so thankful that they admit their fault to you. The worst thing you can do is get angry or start a fight.


Second, make sure everyone is safe from being injured further. If you are in the middle of traffic, and you are dizzy, sit down away from traffic. If your vehicle is a traffic hazard and you have accident warning devices like flares or triangles, put them out on the road to warn other drivers and get away from the car. Let the police an other emergency personnel investigate the scene with the vehicles in place and move them more safely at a later point.


Third, call the police. Accident reports are extremely helpful if the police will do such a report. Let the police know you are injured immediately. Answer the police questions honestly. But if you are dazed or confused, let them know you need medical treatment and answer only what you feel sure about. Remember, your statements can and will be used against you if you admit fault, and it will be too late and too fishy to later say you didn’t know what you were saying at the scene. Police know that your best recollection is immediately after an accident.



Fourth, get the other driver’s information including their names, addresses, driver’s license numbers, make and model of their vehicles, license plate numbers, and their insurance company name and policy number. If there are witnesses, get their names, addresses and telephone numbers as well. If the other driver makes any admissions of fault, write those down as well.


Fifth, if you have a camera on your cell phone or in the car and you aren’t too injured, take some photos of the vehicles and the scene. If you can’t do it right away, do it after you are released from the hospital.

Sixth, if you are hurt, obtain medical treatment. Don’t decline the ambulance or hospital examination to save your insurance company money or to be stoic. Take your valuables out of your car if you can and get checked out at the hospital. If you are not hurt, don’t get treatment you don’t need. However, remember, after an accident, you may feel a rush of adrenaline that causes you to only start feeling symptoms of pain a few hours later. If you have a health plan that requires you to obtain permission first, call them and find out where you are allowed to seek treatment.


Seventh, call a good auto accident attorney as soon as you have had your initial treatment, so the lawyer can gather other important evidence and prevent the insurance company from taking advantage of you and obtaining such things as recorded statements that you feel fine, when many of your symptoms have yet to manifest themselves. A good auto accident attorney can save you from making a great deal of mistakes and can shoulder much of the hassle of knowing what to do about car repairs, car rentals, medical treatment, witness statements and the like. If you think you will save money by not having an attorney, think again. A good auto accident lawyer can almost always obtain much higher settlements, obtain reductions of medical bills and insurance liens and prevent you from making costly mistakes. Also, most auto accident attorneys advance costs of obtaining police reports, medical records and the like and are paid and reimbursed for these costs only out of any settlement.


Eight, you will need to report the accident to your insurance company, but since they will want to take a recorded statement from you, just like any other driver’s insurance company, it’s good advice to retain an attorney first. And if the other driver did not have insurance, remember that it is your own insurance company that will be your adversary. You will also need to report the accident to the Department of Motor Vehicles and your lawyer can give you the form for this.


Ninth, do not agree to settle your claim privately with the person at fault for the accident. This almost never works out to your advantage. Don’t agree not to call the police. Police reports that determine the fault for an accident are golden. Your agreement to not involve the police only affords an opportunity for the other driver to change his story and blame you when the police will no longer investigate the accident.


Tenth, don’t pay a traffic ticket without a fight if you weren’t at fault or agree to accept a small payment for your vehicle repairs without knowing that the amount will in fact cover the cost of all the repairs.


If you’ve had an auto accident in Ontario, Rancho Cucamonga, Corona, Temecula, Murrieta, Riverside, San Bernardino, Moreno Valley, Fontana, Palmdale, Victorville, Hesperia, or anywhere in Southern California, we have the knowledge and resources to be your Rancho Cucamonga Auto Accident Lawyer and your Ontario Auto Accident Attorney. Be sure to hire a California law firm with auto, motorcycle, truck, bicycle, pedestrian, car, bus, train, boat and airplane accident experience, wrongful death experience and insurance law expertise who can ensure you are properly represented and get the compensation you deserve.


If you have a personal injury legal matter, a dog bite or if you’ve lost a loved one in a wrongful death accident, call the Law Offices of R. Sebastian Gibson, or visit our website at http://www.SebastianGibsonLaw.com  and learn how we can assist you.

The Sebastian Gibson Law Firm serves auto, motorcycle and truck accident victims in Ontario, Rancho Cucamonga, Corona, Temecula, Murrieta, Riverside, San Bernardino, Moreno Valley, Fontana, Palmdale, Victorville, and Hesperia. We also serve bicycle, pedestrian and car accident clients from San Diego to Orange County, Long Beach and Santa Monica, Palm Springs, Palm Desert and Indio, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Oxnard, Redlands, Yorba Linda, Rialto, Redlands, Hemet, Perris, Colton and San Luis Obispo, and all of Southern California.

Visit our website at http://www.sebastiangibsonlaw.com if you have a personal injury legal matter of any kind. We have the knowledge and resources to represent you as your Rancho Cucamonga Auto Accident Lawyer and Ontario Auto Accident Attorney or your attorney in and around the cities of Corona del Mar, Laguna Beach, Huntington Beach, Irvine, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Carlsbad, Oceanside, La Jolla, Del Mar and Escondido. We also serve Orange, Fullerton, Costa Mesa, Corona, Westminster, Buena Park, Mission Viejo, Garden Grove, Chula Vista, El Cajon, Vista, San Marcos, Solana Beach, Encinitas, Laguna Niguel, Chino Hills, San Clemente, Pacific Beach, Coachella, Rancho Mirage, La Quinta, Joshua Tree and Newport Coast.

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